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Advisory Group on Conduct Problems. (2009). Conduct problems: Best practice report [Report]. MSD. problems-best-practice/conduct-problems.pdf

Aguiar, W., & Halseth, R. (2015). Aboriginal peoples and historic trauma: The processes of intergenerational transmission. National Collborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. RPT-HistoricTrauma-IntergenTransmission-Aguiar-Halseth-EN.pdf

Andersen, L. S., Gaffney, O., Lamb, W., Hoff, H., & Wood, A. (2020). A safe operating space for New Zealand/ Aotearoa: Translating the planetary boundaries framework. Ministry for the Environment. the-planetary-boundaries-framework/

Ardern, J. (2018). Child Poverty Reduction Bill—A background summary. The Beehive. sites/default/files/2018-01/Child%20Poverty%20Reduction%20Bill%20backgrounder_0.pdf

Atkinson, J., Salmond, C., & Crampton, P. (2019). NZDep2018 Index of Deprivation [Final Research Report, December 2020]. University of Otago.

Babian, L., Beatty, J., Bennetts, K., Loh, E., McKibben, D., & Russell, J. (2021). Kia whaihua mō te oranga: Placing value on wellbeing – Alternative approaches to assessing and prioritising public initiatives. ANZSOG.

Baker, M. G., Telfar Barnard, L., Kvalsvig, A., Verrall, A., Zhang, J., Keall, M., Willson, N., Wall, T., & Howden- Chapman, P. (2012). Increasing incidence of serious infectious diseases and inequalities in New Zealand: A national epidemiological study. The Lancet, 379, 1112–1119. 6736(11)61780-7

BarBrook-Johnson, P., Sharpe, S., Pasqualino, R., Moura, F. S. D., Nijsee, F., Vercoulen, P., Clark, A., Peñasco, C., Anadon, L. D., Mercure, J.-F., Hepburn, C., Farmer, J. D., & Lenton, T. M. (2023). New economic models of energy innovation and transition: Addressing new questions and providing better answers. The Economics of Energy Innovation and System Transition (EEIST). new-economic-models-of-energy-innovation-and-transition/

Berentson-Shaw, J. (2018). Telling a new story about ‘child poverty’ in New Zealand [A report prepared by The Workshop for The Policy Observatory, Auckland University of Technology]. The Workshop, The Policy Observatory. new-zealand-2018

Bishop, R., & Berryman, M. (2006). Culture speaks: Cultural relationships and classroom learning. Huia Publishers.

Bishop, R., Berryman, M., Tiakiwai, S., & Richardson, C. (2003). Te Kotahitanga Phase 1: The experiences of Year 9 and 10 Māori students in mainstream classrooms [Report to the Ministry of Education]. Ministry of Education. a9cf5dc1a44d4b6d63182a5b1c2773ac21558a58

Boston, J. (2021a). Assessing the options for combatting democratic myopia and safeguarding long-term interests. Futures : The Journal of Policy, Planning and Futures Studies, 125, 102668-.

Boston, J. (2021b). Protecting long-term interests: The role of institutions as commitment devices. In Giving future generations a voice (pp. 86–107). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Boston, J., Bagnall, D., & Barry, A. (2019). Foresight, insight and oversight: Enhancing long-term governance through better parliamentary scrutiny. Institute of Governance and Policy Studies, Victoria Univeristy of Wellington.  data/assets/pdf_file/0011/1753571/Foresight-insight-and-oversight.pdf

Boston, J., Bagnall, D., & Barry, A. (2020). Enhancing long-term governance: Parliament’s vital oversight role. Policy Quarterly, 16(1), 43–52.

Brandsen, T., Steen, T., & Verschuere, B. (2018). Co-creation and co-production in public services: Urgent issues in practice and research.

Braveman, P., & Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: It’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 2), 19–31.

Bray, R., Gray, M., & Hart, P. ’t. (2019). Evaluation and learning from failure and success. Australia & New Zealand School of Government. learning-from-failure-and-success/

Bush, N. R., Noroña-Zhou, A., Coccia, M., Rudd, K. L., Ahmad, S. I., Loftus, C. T., Swan, S. H., Nguyen, R. H. N., Barrett, E. S., Tylavsky, F. A., Mason, W. A., Karr, C. J., Sathyanarayana, S., & LeWinn, K. Z. (2023). Intergenerational transmission of stress: Multi-domain stressors from maternal childhood and pregnancy predict children’s mental health in a racially and socioeconomically diverse, multi-site cohort. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.

Carey, G., & Crammond, B. (2015). What works in joined-up government? An evidence synthesis. International Journal of Public Administration, 38(13–14), 1020–1029.

Carlisle, K., & Gruby, R. L. (2019). Polycentric systems of governance: A theoretical model for the commons. Policy Studies Journal, 47(4), 927–952.

Caulkin, S., Pell, C., O’Donovan, B., & Mack, J. (Eds.). (n.d.). The Vanguard Periodical. The Vanguard Method in people centred services (Edition Two). Vanguard Consulting Ltd. the-vanguard-periodical-vanguard-periodical-the-vanguard-method-in-people-centred.html?page=1

Center on the Developing Child. (2010). The foundations of lifelong health are built in early childhood.

Chapman, J., & Duncan, G. (2007). Is there now a new ‘New Zealand model’? Public Management Review, 9, 1–25.

Clerk of the House of Representatives. (2022). Submission on the review of Standing Orders 2023. Parliamentary scrutiny of the Executive [Submission]. Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. www.parliament. nz/resource/en-NZ/53SCSO_EVI_122709_SO116/91ba0b16edb32a779395effdd73377a9293b4137

Cochrane, B., & Pacheco, G. (2022). Empirical analysis of Pacific, Māori and ethnic pay gaps in New Zealand [Research Note]. New Zealand Work Research Institute. data/assets/ pdf_file/0004/672205/7e71e4dbee2432b576ef6fbc348f4d7109cdd073.pdf

ComVoices. (2022). Insights from social policy research on communities and Covid-19. nz/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/COMVOICES-Community-Research-Seminar-Report.pdf

Connolly, J. (2023). Causal diagrams to support ‘A fair chance for all’. Inquiries/a-fair-chance-for-all/A-Fair-Chance-for-All-Causal-Diagrams-2023.05.03.pdf

Controller and Auditor-General. (2019). Public accountability: A matter of trust and confidence (A Discussion Paper Presented to the House of Representatives under Section 20 of the Public Audit Act 2001 B.29[19e]).

Controller and Auditor-General. (2021a). Building a stronger public accountability system for New Zealanders (Presented to the House of Representatives under Section 20 of the Public Audit Act 2001 B.29[21h]).

Controller and Auditor-General. (2021b). Summary—Working in new ways to address family violence and sexual violence.

Controller and Auditor-General. (2021c). The Government’s preparedness to implement the sustainable development goals (Presented to the House of Representatives under Section 20 of the Public Audit Act 2001 B.29[21g]).

Controller and Auditor-General. (2021d). The Government’s preparedness to implement the sustainable development goals (Presented to the House of Representatives B.29[21g]). www.oag.parliament. nz/2021/sdgs/docs/sustainable-dev-goals.pdf

Controller and Auditor-General. (2021e). The problems, progress, and potential of performance reporting (Presented to the House of Representatives under Section 20 of the Public Audit Act 2001 B.29[21j]).

Controller and Auditor-General. (2023). How well public organisations are supporting Whānau Ora and whānau-centred approaches (B.29[23a]). Office of the Auditor-General. whanau-ora

Cookson, R., Doran, T., Asaria, M., Gupta, I., & Mujica, F. P. (2021). The inverse care law re-examined: A global perspective. Lancet, 397(10276), 828–838.

Cottam, H. (2020). Welfare 5.0: Why we need a social revolution and how to make it happen (Policy Report IIPP 2020-10). Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose. purpose/publications/2020/sep/welfare-50-why-we-need-social-revolution-and-how-make-it- happen#:~:text=make%20it%20happen-,Welfare%205.0%3A%20Why%20we%20need%20a%20 social%20revolution%20and%20how,of%20a%20new%20social%20settlement.

Dale, C. (2021, December 23). How to take the interests of future generations into account [Opinion]. NZ Herald.

Davidson, J. (2020). #FutureGen, lessons from a small country. Chelsea Green Publishing.

De Neve, J.-E., Clark, A. E., Krekel, C., Layard, R., & O’Donnell, G. (2020). Taking a wellbeing years approach to policy choice. BMJ, 2020(371), m3853.

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2022). Review of the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy— Findings and recommendations. release-briefing-cyw-strategy-findings-recommendations.pdf

Dietz, T., Fitzgerald, A., & Shwom, R. (2005). Environmental values. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30, 335–372.

Dormer, R., & Ward, S. (2018). Accountability and public governance in New Zealand (Working Paper No. 117). School of Accounting and Commercial Law, Victoria University of Wellington.  data/assets/pdf_file/0009/1869021/wp-117.pdf

DPMC. (2022). Review of the Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy—Findings and recommendations (Briefing DPMC-2021/22-2587). briefing-cyw-strategy-findings-recommendations.pdf

Durie, M. (2017). Indigenous suicide: The Turamarama Declaration. Journal of Indigenous Wellbeing Te Mauri - Pimatisiwin, 2(2), 59–67.

Edwards, B. (2022, June 23). Wealthy can buy access to power – And politicians don’t want this changed. Democracy Project. to-power-and-politicians-dont-want-this-changed/

Engelbrecht, H.-J. (2013). The Living Standards Framework and Innovation.

Eppel, E., & O’Leary, R. (2021). Retrofitting collaboration into the new public management: Evidence from New Zealand (A. Whitford & R. Christensen, Eds.). Cambridge University Press.

Espiner, G. (2023a, March 23). How well-connected lobbyists ask for—And receive—Urgent meetings, sensitive information and action on law changes for their corporate clients [News]. RNZ. news/in-depth/486527/how-well-connected-lobbyists-ask-for-and-receive-urgent-meetings-sensitive- information-and-action-on-law-changes-for-their-corporate-clients

Espiner, G. (2023b, March 25). Lobbyists in New Zealand enjoy freedoms unlike most other nations in the developed world [News]. RNZ. freedoms-unlike-most-other-nations-in-the-developed-world

Financial Times. (2020, April 4). Virus lays bare the frailty of the social contract [News].

Foucault, M. (1982). The subject and power. Critical Inquiry, 8(4), 777–795.

Frameworks Institute. (2020). Mindset shifts: What are they? Why do they matter? How do they happen? [A FrameWorks Strategic Report]. they-why-do-they-matter-how-do-they-happen/

FrankAdvice. (2023). A learning system for addressing persistent disadvantage. NZPC. www.productivity.govt. nz/assets/Documents/a-learning-system-for-addressing-persistent-disadvantage/A-learning-system-for- addressing-persistent-disadvantage-final.pdf

Fry, J. (2022). Together alone: A review of joined-up social services. NZPC. Documents/Together-alone_A-review-of-joined-up-social-services.pdf

Future Generations Commissioner for Wales. (2020). The future generations report. www.futuregenerations. wales/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/FGC-Report-English.pdf

Future Generations Commissioner for Wales. (2022). Future generations: Commissioner for Wales peformance report 2021-2022 [Summary]. FG-Summary-2022.pdf

Gaukroger, C., Ampofo, A., Kitt, F., Phillips, T., & Smith, W. (2022). Redefining progress: Global lessons for an Australian approach to wellbeing. Centre for Policy Development. uploads/2022/08/CPD-Redefining-Progress-FINAL.pdf

Gilens, M., & Page, B. I. (2014). Testing theories of American politics: Elites, interest groups, and average citizens. Perspectives on Politics, 12(3), 564–585.

Gill, D. (2000). New Zealand experience with public management reform—Or why the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. International Public Management Journal, 3(2000), 55–66.

GOV.UK. (n.d.). What works network [Guidance]. Retrieved 24 May 2023, from

Graham, H., & Bell, S. (2021). The representation of future generations in newspaper coverage of climate change: A study of the UK press. Children & Society, 35(4), 465–480.

Gunasekara, F., & Carter, K. (2012). Dynamics of income and deprivation in New Zealand, 2002-2009: A descriptive analysis of the survey of family, income and employment (SoFIE) (Public Health Monograph Series No. 24). Department of Public Health, University of Otago. Dynamics-of-Income.pdf

Haemata Limited. (2022a). Colonisation, racism and wellbeing. NZPC_Colonisation_Racism_Wellbeing_Final.pdf

Haemata Limited. (2022b). Māori perspectives on public accountability [Final Report]. Office of the Auditor- General.

Haemata Limited. (2022c). Wānanga feedback report [Prepared for New Zealand Productivity Commission].NZPC. Feedback-Report-A-Fair-Chance-for-All.pdf

Hagen, P., Tangaere, A., Beaton, S., Hadrup, A., Taniwha-Paoo, R., & Te Whiu, D. (2021a). Designing for equity and intergenerational wellbeing: Te Tokotoru [Innovation Brief]. The Auckland Co-Design Lab, The Southern Initiative, Auckland Council. static/5f1e3bad68df2a40e2e0baaa/t/619d6ee9ce2a4c268892b683/1637707507280/TeTokotoru_Oct_ InnovationBrief_2021.pdf

Hagen, P., Tangaere, A., Beaton, S., Hadrup, A., Taniwha-Paoo, R., & Te Whiu, D. (2021b). Designing for equity and intergenerational wellbeing: Te Tokotoru. The Southern Initiative. TeTokotoru_Oct_InnovationBrief_2021.pdf

Health and Disability System Review. (2020). Health and disability system review [Final report - Pūrongo Whakamutunga].

Holzer, H., Whitmore Schanzenbach, D., Duncan, G., & Ludwig, J. (2008). The economic costs of childhood poverty in the United States. Journal of Children & Poverty, 14(1), 41–61. https://doi. org/10.1080/10796120701871280

HQSCNZ. (2019). A window on the quality of Aotearoa New Zealand’s health care 2019 – A view on Māori health equity. Health Quality & Safety Commission NZ. resources/Window_2019_web_final-v2.pdf

Hughes, P. (2019). Public service legislation and public service reform. Policy Quarterly, 15(4), 3–7.

Hughes, T. (2022a). Social investment (in wellbeing?). Policy Quarterly, 18(3), 3–8.

Hughes, T. (2022b). The distribution of advantage in Aotearoa New Zealand: Exploring the evidence [Background Paper to Te Tai Waiora: Wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand 2022]. The Treasury. www.

Human Learning Systems. (2021). Plymouth alliance for complex deeds. uploads/Plymouth%20Alliance.pdf

Human Rights Commission. (2022, July 18). New research reveals majority of the Pacific Pay Gap can’t be explained. gap-cant-be-explained.htm

International Labour Office. (2012). The strategy of the International Labour Organization. Social security for all: Building social protection floors and comprehensive social security systems. International Labour Organization. wcms_secsoc_34188.pdf

Jones, N., O’Brien, M., & Ryan, T. (2018). Representation of future generations in United Kingdom policy- making. Futures : The Journal of Policy, Planning and Futures Studies, 102, 153–163.

Karacaoglu, G. (2021). Love you: Public policy for intergenerational wellbeing. Tuwhiri.

Kiro, C., Asher, I., O’Reilly, P., McGlinchey, T., Waldegrave, C., Brereton, K., Reid, R., McIntosh, T., Nana, G., Hickey, H., & Tautai, L. T. (2019). Whakamana tāngata: Restoring dignity to social security in New Zealand. Kia Piki Ake Welfare Expert Advisory Group. DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE40597708

Knowles, M., Rabinowich, J., Ettinger de Cuiba, S., Becker Cutts, D., & Chilton, M. (2016). ‘“Do you wanna breathe or eat?”’: Parent perspectives on child health consequences of food insecurity, trade-offs, and toxic stress. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(1), 25–32.

Lahey, R. (2010). The Canadian M&E System: Lessons learned from 30 years of development (ECD Working Paper No. 23). World Bank.

Lahey, R., & Nielsen, S. B. (2013). Rethinking the relationship among monitoring, evaluation, and results- based management: Observations from Canada. New Directions for Evaluation, 2013(137), 45–56.

Learning from the Waitangi Tribunal Māori health report. (2019). The Policy Place. https://thepolicyplace.

Litmus Partner. (2021). Success frameworks for Place-Based Initiatives: Design and toolkit [Final report prepared for: Social Wellbeing Agency Toi Hau Tāngata]. Social Wellbeing Agency. publications/guidance/

Llena-Norzal, A., Martin, N., & Murtin, F. (2019). The economy of well-being: Creating opportunities for people’s well-being and economic growth (SDD Working Paper No. 102). document/SDD/DOC(2019)2/En/pdf

Lodge, M., & Gill, D. (2011). Toward a new era of administrative reform? The myth of post-NPM in New Zealand. Governance, 24(1), 141–166.

Lovelock, K. (2020). Implementation evaluation of Mana Whaikaha system transformation [Revised draft, Final version]. Allen+Clarke. Evaluation-Final-Version-3-March-2020-002.pdf

Lowe, T. (2021). Managing and governing learning cycles. In Human learning systems: Public service for the real world (pp. 178–194). ThemPra Social Pedagogy. world.pdf

Lowe, T., & Hesselgreaves, H. (2021). The HLS Principles: Learning. In Human learning systems: Public service for the real world (pp. 54–72). ThemPra Social Pedagogy. hls-real-world.pdf

Lowe, T., & Plimmer, D. (2019). Exploring the new world: Practical insights for funding, commissioning and managing in complexity. Collaborate. new-world-practical-insights-for-funding-commissioning-and-managing-in-complexity/

Lowe, T., & Wilson, R. (2017). Playing the game of outcomes-based performance management. Is gamesmanship inevitable? Evidence from theory and practice. Social Policy & Administration, 51(7), 981–1001.

Manaaki Tairāwhiti. (2023). Manaaki Tairāwhiti. Manaaki Tairāwhiti. Marmot, M. (2015). The health gap: The challenge of an unequal world. Bloomsbury Press.

Martin, B. H. (2016). Unsticking the status quo Strategic framing effects on managerial mindset, status quo bias and systematic resistance to change. Management Research Review, 40(2), 122–141. https://doi. org/10.1108/MRR-08-2015-0183

Mazey, S., & Richardson, J. (Eds.). (2021). Policy-making under pressure: Rethinking the policy process in Aotearoa New Zealand. Canterbury University Press. policy-making-under-pressure-rethinking-the-policy-process-in-aotearoa-new-zealand.html

McAllister, T. (2022). Seen but unheard: Navigating turbulent waters as Māori and Pacific postgraduate students in STEM. Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand, 52(sup1), S116–S134.

McEwen, C. A., & McEwen, B. S. (2017). Social structure, adversity, toxic stress, and intergenerational poverty: An early childhood model. Annual Review of Sociology, 43(1), 445–472. soc-060116-053252

McLachlan, R., Gilfillan, G., & Gordon, J. (2013). Deep and persistent disadvantage in Australia [Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper]. Australian Productivity Commission. supporting/deep-persistent-disadvantage

McMeeking, S., Kahi, H., & Kururangi, K. (2019). Implementing He Ara Waiora in alignment with the Living Standards Framework and Whanau Ora [Draft Recommendatory Report]. University of Canterbury. WAIORA%20DESIGN%20REPORT.pdf?sequence=2

McMeeking, S., Kururangi, K., & Hamuera, K. (2019). He Ara Wairoa: Background paper on the development and content of He Ara Wairoa. University of Canterbury.

McMullin, C. (2023). The persistent constraints of new public management on sustainable co-production between non-profit professionals and service users. Administrative Sciences, 13(37). https://doi. org/10.3390/admsci13020037

Menzies, M. (2022). Long-term insights briefings: A futures perspective. Policy Quarterly, 18(4), 54–64.

Miller, R. J., Ruru, J., Behrendt, L., & Lindberg, T. (2010). Discovering indigenous lands: The doctrine of discovery in the English colonies. Oxford University Press.

Minister of Social Development and Employment. (2004). Reducing inequalities: Next steps [Cabinet paper]. inequalities/reducing-inequalities-next-steps.pdf

Ministry for Pacific Peoples. (2022). Pacific wellbeing strategy. Weaving all-of-government: Progressing Lalanga Fou.

Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment. (2022). Te Ara Paerangi: Future Pathways White Paper 2022. initiatives/te-ara-paerangi-future-pathways/te-ara-paerangi-future-pathways-white-paper/white-paper/

Ministry of Health. (2021). Kia Manawanui Aotearoa: Long-term pathway to mental wellbeing.

Ministry of Social Development. (2018). Rapid evidence review: The impact of poverty on life course outcomes for children, and the likely effect of increasing the adequacy of welfare benefits [Report for the Welfare Expert Advisory Group]. Ministry of Social Development. about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/information-releases/weag-report-release/rapid- evidence-review-the-impact-of-poverty-on-life-course-outcomes-for-children-and-the-likely-effect-of- increasing-the-adequacy-of-welfare-benef.pdf

Ministry of Social Development. (2020). Place-Based Initiatives: Evaluation findings and long term funding [Cabinet Paper]. releases/cabinet-papers/2020/place-based-initiatives-evaluation-findings-and-long-term-funding.html

Ministry of Social Development. (2022a). Social Sector Commissioning 2022-2028 Action Plan. nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/planning-strategy/social-sector-commissioning/ index.html

Ministry of Social Development. (2022b). Social sector commissioning: Sector update. nz/documents/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/planning-strategy/social-sector-commissioning/social-sector-commissioning-update-2022.pdf

Morgan, J. D., De Marco, A. C., LaForett, D. R., Oh, S., Avankova, B., Morgan, W., & Franco, X. (2018). What racism looks like: An infographic. Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2014). Excessive stress disrupts the architecture of the developing drain (Working Paper No. 3). Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. https:// Developing_Brain-1.pdf

Nepe, R., Panapa, W., & Jackson, L. (2021). Update on Manaaki Tairāwhiti and the navigators to the FVSV JV DCEs. Manaaki Tairāwhiti.

New Zealand Government. (2021a). Government offers formal apology for Dawn

New Zealand Government. (2021b). Te Aorerekura. The National Strategy to Eliminate Family Violence and Sexual Violence. Te-Aorerekura-National-Strategy-final.pdf

New Zealand Government. (2022a). Government Data Investment Plan 2022 [Version 2.0].

New Zealand Government. (2022b). New Zealand’s Fourth National Action Plan 2023-2024 [Draft for consultation]. 4th-National-Action-Plan-24-November-2022.pdf

New Zealand Government. (2022c, May 19). The wellbeing objectives. NZ 2022 Budget. New Zealand Legislation. (2019). Public Service Legislation Bill, Government Bill 189-1.

Nicholson-Crotty, S., Nicholson-Crotty, J., & Fernandez, S. (2016). Performance and management in the public sector: Testing a model of relative risk aversion. Public Administration Review, 77(4), 603–614.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating capabilities: The human development approach (pp. xii–xii). Harvard University Press.

NZPC. (2015a). More effective social services [Final report].

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NZPC. (2022a). A fair chance for all interim report. Breaking the cycle of persistent disadvantage [Interim report]. chance-for-all-Interim-Report.pdf

NZPC. (2022b). The benefits of reducing persistent disadvantage [Research Note]. NZPC.

NZPC. (2022c). The benefits of reducing persistent disadvantage [Working Paper].

NZPC. (2023a). A fair chance for all: Summary of submissions on interim report. assets/Inquiries/a-fair-chance-for-all/Summary-of-submissions-Fair-Chance-for-All.pdf

NZPC. (2023b). Follow-on review—Frontier firms [Final Report]. review-frontier-firms/

NZPC. (Forthcoming). A quantitative analysis of disadvantage and how it persists in Aotearoa New Zealand [A supplementary report to the a fair chance for all inquiry]. chance-for-all/

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OECD. (2017). Systems approaches to public sector challenges: Working with change. OECD Publishing.

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OECD. (2019b). OECD good practices for performance budgeting.

OECD. (2022). Anticipatory innovation governance: Towards a new way of governing in Finland.

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Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. (2021). Wellbeing budgets and the environment. A promised land?

Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. (2022). Environmental reporting, research and investment. Do we know if we’re making a difference? reporting-research-and-investment-do-we-know-if-were-making-a-difference.pdf

Pawson, E. & The Biological Economies Team. (2018). The new biological economy. How New Zealanders are creating value from the land. Auckland University Press.

Pearce, J. (2011). An estimate of the national costs of child poverty in New Zealand. Analytica. https:// poverty-in-nz-10-august-2011.pdf?dl=1

Perret, C., Hart, E., & Powers, S. T. (2020). From disorganized equality to efficient hierarchy: How group size drives the evolution of hierarchy in human societies. Proc Biol Sci, 287(1928). rspb.2020.0693

Petrie, M. (2021). Environmental governance and Greening Fiscal Policy. Government accountability for environmental stewardship. Springer International Publishing.

Petrie, M. (2022). Integrating economic and environmental policy. Policy Quarterly, 18(2), 10–17. https://doi. org/10.26686/pq.v18i2.7569

Pihama, L. (2017). Investigating Māori approaches to trauma informed care. Journal of Indigenous Wellbeing, 2(3), 18–31.

Prickett, K. C., Paine, S.-J., Carr, P. A., & Morton, S. (2022a). A fair chance for all? Family resources across the early life course and children’s development in Aotearoa New Zealand. New Zealand Productivity Commission.

Prickett, K. C., Paine, S.-J., Carr, P. A., & Morton, S. (2022b). A fair chance for all? Family resources across the early life course and children’s development in Aotearoa New Zealand. New Zealand Productivity Commission.

Priest, N., Paradies, Y., Trenerry, B., Truong, M., Karlsen, S., & Kelly, Y. (2013). A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people. Social Science & Medicine, 95, 115–127.

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PSC. (2022b). Guidance: System Design Toolkit for shared problems. guidance-system-design-toolkit/

PSC. (2020). Public Service Act 2020 reforms [Guidance]. act-2020-reforms/

Rangihau, J., Manuel, E., Brennan, H., Boag, P., Reedy, T., Baker, N., & Grant, J. (1988). Puao-te-ata-tu (Day break): The report of the Ministerial Advisory Committee on a Maori perspective for the Department of Social Welfare. Department of Social Welfare.

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Box 1

Reducing persistent disadvantage could raise productivity and create substantial social and economic benefits for everyone


Box 2

Failing to provide effective and early support, especially in early childhood, can have long-term and intergenerational impacts


Box 3

Why addressing persistent disadvantage matters for the wellbeing of people, communities and society


Box 4

Embedding te Tiriti o Waitangi within the health sector


Box 5

Values filter information, impact our reasoning, influence intentions and determine actions


Box 6

Reforming the values for how the public service and government could work


Box 7

Swedish Government approach to long-term objective setting


Box 8

French “Green Budget”


Box 9

What is anticipatory governance?


Box 10

Key features of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015


Box 11

Centrally enabled, locally led, whānau-centred approaches are under-resourced


Box 12

The Tairāwhiti “way of working”


Box 13

Impact – the pseudo-accountability trap


Box 14

“Backbone” functions


Box 15

Te Tokotoru: A systems response


Box 16

Manaaki coaches use what is being learned on the ground to change the system


Box 17

Creating a platform to share learning and building the capacity to learn across the early years system in South Auckland


Box 18

The Tairāwhiti Wellbeing Survey





Figure 1

The New Zealand Productivity Commission’s “Mauri ora” approach


Figure  2

Persistent disadvantage across three domains (using seven measures) in 2013 and 2018






Table 1

Inquiry research reports


Table 2

Percentage of population group experiencing persistent disadvantage in specified domains in both 2013 and 2018 (peak working age households)


Table 3

Contrasts between the historic and evolving emphasis of the system to enable it to deliver public value and to respond to complex contemporary challenges


Table 4

Principles to underpin a wellbeing approach in Aotearoa New Zealand


Table 5

Key whānau system measures used by Manaaki Tairāwhiti


Table 6

Examples of leadership and governance groups created to support whānau-centred, locally led and centrally enabled approaches


Table 7

Attributes of a learning system leadership function


Table 8

Recommendations roadmap


Table 9

Guidance for public bodies on wellbeing work